Magna Carta Libertatum (medieval Latin for “Magna Charter of Freedoms”), usually Magna Carta (also Magna Carta; “Magna Carta”)[a] is a royal charter of rights agreed by King John of England on 15 June 1215 at Runnymede near Windsor. [b] Originally designed by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Stephen Langton, to make peace between the unpopular king and a group of rebel barons, it promised the protection of canonical rights, the protection of barons from illegal detention, access to prompt justice and the limitation of feudal payments to the crown to be implemented by a council of 25 barons. Neither side supported its commitments, and the Charter was annulled by Pope Innocent III, which led to the First Barons` War. (8) No widow may be forced to marry as long as she wishes to remain without a husband. But she must give the certainty that she will not marry without royal consent if she holds her lands from the crown, or without the consent of the other lord of whom she may think. As mentioned earlier, regardless of the content of this original document, this original document was quickly invalidated and replaced with later versions. There is no mention of Article 61 or the 25 Barons in version 1216 or the “final” version 1225 of the document. The document, signed by rebel barons and sealed Monday in the name of King John at Runnymede 800 years ago, was quickly rejected, revised and reissued to ensure that his true legal heritage has been challenged repeatedly over the centuries. The two documents from 1215 in the possession of the British Library, known as Cotton MS.
Augustus II.106 and Cotton Charter XIII.31a were published in the 17th century. ==References=====External links===* Official website  The first had been found by Humphrey Wyems, a London lawyer, who may have discovered it in a tailor`s shop and there was cotton in January 1629.  The second was found at Dover Castle in 1630 by Sir Edward Dering. The Charter of Dering was traditionally considered the copy sent to the Cinque Ports in 1215;  but in 2015, historian David Carpenter argued that it was more likely to be sent to Canterbury Cathedral because its text was identical to a transcription made from the cathedral`s copy of the Charter of 1215 in the 1290s.    This copy was damaged in the 1731 cotton library fire, when its seal was severely melted. The parchment narrowed slightly, but otherwise relatively intact, and an engraved facsimile of the charter was made by John Pine in 1733. In the 1830s, however, a thoughtless and foolish attempt at purification and preservation made the manuscript largely unreadable to the naked eye.   However, this is the only surviving specimen from 1215 to which its great seal is still attached.   The preamble to the Magna Carta contains the names of the following 27 ecclesiastical and secular magnates who had advised John to accept his terms. The names include some of the moderate reformers, including Archbishop Stephen Langton, and some of John`s loyal supporters, such as William Marshal, Earl of Pembroke. Both documents specify what the king could and could not do. In other words, the Magna Carta established the laws that the king and all others were to obey for the first time.
Copies of the Magna Carta were sent to be read in every county in England so that everyone would know about its existence. “Coke, widely regarded as the most learned lawyer of his time, saved the Magna Carta from darkness and turned it from a somewhat technical catalogue of feudal regulations into a founding document of the English Constitution,” Sumption said. “It`s really Coca`s idea that Magna Carta be exported to the world, not the version that King John or his barons would have recognized.” The Magna Carta became increasingly part of English political life during Henry III`s minority.  As the king grew older, his government slowly began to recover from the civil war, regained control of the counties, and began to increase its revenues again, taking care not to go beyond the terms of the charters.  Henry remained a minor and his government`s legal capacity to make permanent binding decisions on his behalf was limited. In 1223, tensions over the status of deeds at the royal court became clear when Henry`s government attempted to recover his rights to their possessions and revenues in the counties, and met with opposition from many municipalities who argued, albeit sometimes wrongly, that the charters protected the new regulations.   This resistance led to a dispute between Archbishop Langton and William Brewer over whether the king had a duty to fulfill the conditions of the acts, as he had been forced to accept them.  On this occasion, Henry gave verbal assurances that he felt bound by the documents, which allowed for a royal inquiry into the situation in the counties to be advanced.  The Magna Carta was a bill of rights approved by King John of England in 1215 and was the first written constitution in Europe. Before the introduction of the Magna Carta, English monarchs were considered above the law of the land and ruled with relatively absolute power. King John was pressured to accept the Magna Carta in order to make peace in England, while the barons of northern and eastern England rebelled against his rule and demanded the protection of the king`s unbridled power.